Impact of systemic insecticides on organisms and ecosystems

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Insecticides - Development of Safer and More Effective Technologies, 2013, 1st, pp. 365 - 414
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This review has brought some light on the direct, sublethal and indirect effects that systemic insecticides have on species populations and ecosystems. Some long-term impacts have been known for some time (e.g. carbofuran, phorate), but it is the rapid increase in the usage of neonicotinoids and other systemic products that poses a new challenge to the ecological risk assessment of agrochemicals. Indeed, current risk protocols, based on acute, short-term toxic affects are inadequate to cope with the chronic exposure and cumulative, delayed impacts of the new compounds. Awareness of the increasing contamination of the environment with active residues of these chemicals should help regulators and managers to implement new approaches for risk assessment of these substances.
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