Antivenoms for the treatment of spider envenomation

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Show simple item record Nicholson, GM Graudins, A 2009-12-21T02:34:04Z 2003
dc.identifier.citation Journal of Toxicology - Toxin Reviews, 2003, 22 (1), pp. 35 - 59
dc.identifier.issn 0731-3837
dc.identifier.other C1 en_US
dc.description.abstract There are several groups of medically important araneomorph and mygalomorph spiders responsible for serious systemic envenomation. These include spiders from the genus Latrodectus (family Theridiidae), Phoneutria (family Ctenidae) and the subfamily Atracinae (genera Atrax and Hadronyche). The venom of these spiders contains potent neurotoxins that cause excessive neurotransmitter release via vesicle exocytosis or modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, spiders of the genus Loxosceles (family Loxoscelidae) are responsible for significant local reactions resulting in necrotic cutaneous lesions. This results from sphingomyelinase D activity and possibly other compounds. A number of antivenoms are currently available to treat envenomation resulting from the bite of these spiders. Particularly efficacious antivenoms are available for Latrodectus and Atrax/Hadronyche species, with extensive cross-reactivity within each genera. In the case of Latrodectus antivenoms this is of considerable importance in countries where antivenom is unavailable or where certain antivenoms are associated with an unacceptably high risk of adverse reactions. Moreover, Latrodectus and Atrax antivenoms appear to be effective in the treatment of envenomation by closely related Steatoda spiders (family Theridiidae) or the unrelated spider Missulena bradleyi (family Actinopodidae), respectively. The effectiveness of Loxosceles antivenom in the treatment of the necrotic arachnidism resulting from the bite of recluse spiders is less clear mainly due to late presentation of victims. Antivenom is also available for Phoneutria envenomation but is reserved only for severe cases.
dc.language eng
dc.relation.hasversion Accepted manuscript version
dc.relation.isbasedon 10.1081/TXR-120019019
dc.title Antivenoms for the treatment of spider envenomation
dc.type Journal Article
dc.description.version Published
dc.parent Journal of Toxicology - Toxin Reviews
dc.journal.volume 1
dc.journal.volume 22
dc.journal.number 1 en_US
dc.publocation New York, USA en_US
dc.identifier.startpage 35 en_US
dc.identifier.endpage 59 en_US Health Sciences en_US
dc.conference Verified OK en_US
dc.for 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
dc.personcode 004814
dc.personcode 870145
dc.percentage 100 en_US Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences en_US
dc.classification.type FOR-08 en_US
dc.description.keywords Antivenom
dc.description.keywords Atrax
dc.description.keywords Envenomation
dc.description.keywords Hadronyche
dc.description.keywords Latrodectus
dc.description.keywords Loxosceles
dc.description.keywords Missulena
dc.description.keywords Phoneutria
dc.description.keywords Spiders
dc.description.keywords Steatoda
pubs.embargo.period Not known
pubs.organisational-group /University of Technology Sydney
pubs.organisational-group /University of Technology Sydney/Faculty of Science
pubs.organisational-group /University of Technology Sydney/Strength - Health Technologies
utslib.copyright.status Closed Access 2015-04-15 12:23:47.074767+10
pubs.consider-herdc true
utslib.collection.history General (ID: 2)

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