Treatment of high salinity waste water from shale gas exploitation by forward osmosis processes

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Forward Osmosis: Fundamentals and Applications, 2015, pp. 339 - 362
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© 2015 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. This chapter reviews state-of-the-art treatment of shale-gas-produced water with a focus on the treatment of shale-gas flow-back water (SGW) by forward osmosis (FO). It briefly introduces the origin and chemical/physical characteristics of SGW. Management of shale-gas wastewater depends on multidimensional criteria, e.g., local regulations, site conditions, water quality, and economic feasibility. Approaches used to treat high-salinity wastewater include deep well injection, transport and centralized treatment, treatment and disposal, and reuse. The chapter analyzes the advantages and limitations of potential treatments methods and summarizes the process parameters and selection of membrane and draw solutions. Studies were performed to examine the effectiveness of FO in treating high-salinity wastewater produced from shale-gas exploitation. The chapter discusses the potential for using the FO process to treat SGW on a large scale.
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