A review on economic and technical operation of active distribution systems

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Journal Article
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2019, pp. 38 - 53
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© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Along with the advent of restructuring in power systems, considerable integration of renewable energy resources has motivated the transition of traditional distribution networks (DNs) toward new active ones. In the meanwhile, rapid technology advances have provided great potentials for future bulk utilization of generation units as well as the energy storage (ES) systems in the distribution section. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of recent advancements in the operation of active distribution systems (ADSs) from the viewpoint of operational time-hierarchy. To be more specific, this time-hierarchy consists of two stages, and at the first stage of this time-hierarchy, four major economic factors, by which the operation of traditional passive DNs is evolved to new active DNs, are described. Then the second stage of the time-hierarchy refers to technical management and power quality correction of ADSs in terms of static, dynamic and transient periods. In the end, some required modeling and control developments for the optimal operation of ADSs are discussed. As opposed to previous review papers, potential applications of devices in the ADS are investigated considering their operational time-intervals. Since some of the compensating devices, storage units and generating sources may have different applications regarding the time scale of their utilization, this paper considers real scenario system operations in which components of the network are firstly scheduled for the specified period ahead; then their deviations of operating status from reference points are modified during three time-intervals covering static, dynamic and transient periods.
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