An overview of field-scale studies on remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids: Technical progress over the last decade

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Journal Article
Water Research, 2018, 147 pp. 440 - 460
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Soil contamination by heavy metals and metalloids has been a major concern to human health and environmental quality. While many remediation technologies have been tested at the bench scale, there have been only limited reports at the field scale. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the field applications of various soil remediation technologies performed over the last decade or so. Under the general categories of physical, chemical, and biological approaches, ten remediation techniques were critically reviewed. The technical feasibility and economic effectiveness were evaluated, and the pros and cons were appraised. In addition, attention was placed to the environmental impacts of the remediation practices and long-term stability of the contaminants, which should be taken into account in the establishment of remediation goals and environmental criteria. Moreover, key knowledge gaps and practical challenges are identified.
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