Modal expansions in periodic photonic systems with material loss and dispersion
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Physical Review B, 2018, 97 (10)
- Issue Date:
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© 2018 American Physical Society. We study band-structure properties of periodic optical systems composed of lossy and intrinsically dispersive materials. To this end, we develop an analytical framework based on adjoint modes of a lossy periodic electromagnetic system and show how the problem of linearly dependent eigenmodes in the presence of material dispersion can be overcome. We then formulate expressions for the band-structure derivative (∂ω)/(∂k) (complex group velocity) and the local and total density of transverse optical states. Our exact expressions hold for 3D periodic arrays of materials with arbitrary dispersion properties and in general need to be evaluated numerically. They can be generalized to systems with two, one, or no directions of periodicity provided the fields are localized along nonperiodic directions. Possible applications are photonic crystals, metamaterials, metasurfaces composed of highly dispersive materials such as metals or lossless photonic crystals, and metamaterials or metasurfaces strongly coupled to resonant perturbations such as quantum dots or excitons in 2D materials. For illustration purposes, we analytically evaluate our expressions for some simple systems consisting of lossless dielectrics with one sharp Lorentzian material resonance added. By combining several Lorentz poles, this provides an avenue to perturbatively treat quite general material loss bands in photonic crystals.
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