A scaled linear mixed model for multiple outcomes

Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Citation:
Biometrics, 2000, 56 (2), pp. 593 - 601
Issue Date:
2000-01
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We propose a scaled linear mixed model to assess the effects of exposure and other covariates on multiple continuous outcomes. The most general form of the model allows a different exposure effect for each outcome. An important special case is a model that represents the exposure effects using a common global measure that can be characterized in terms of effect sizes. Correlations among different outcomes within the same subject are accommodated using random effects. We develop two approaches to model fitting, including the maximum likelihood method and the working parameter method. A key feature of both methods is that they can be easily implemented by repeatedly calling software for fitting standard linear mixed models, e.g., SAS PROC MIXED. Compared to the maximum likelihood method, the working parameter method is easier to implement and yields fully efficient estimators of the parameters of interest. We illustrate the proposed methods by analyzing data from a study of the effects of occupational pesticide exposure on semen quality in a cohort of Chinese men.
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