Linearisation, error correction coding and equalisation for multi-level modulation schemes
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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been standardised for digital audio broadcasting (DAB), digital video broadcasting (DVB) and wireless local area networks (WLAN). OFDM systems are capable of effectively coping with frequency- selective fading without using complex equalisation structures. The modulation and demodulation processes using fast fourier transform (FFT) and its inverse (IFFT) can be implemented very efficiently. More recently, multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) based on the combination of OFDM and conventional CDMA has received growing attention in the field of wireless personal communication and digital multimedia broadcasting. It can cope with channel frequency selectivity due to its own capabilities of overcoming the asynchronous nature of multimedia data traffic and higher capacity over conventional multiple access techniques. On the other hand, multicarrier modulation schemes are based on the transmission of a given set of signals on large numbers of orthogonal subcarriers. Due to the fact that the multicarrier modulated (MCM) signal is a superposition of many amplitude modulated sinusoids, its probability density function is nearly Gaussian. Therefore, the MCM signal is characterised by a very high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). As a result of the high PAPR, the MCM signal is severely distorted when a nonlinear high power amplifier (HPA) is employed to obtain sufficient transmitting power. This is very common in most communication systems, and decreases the performance significantly. The simplest way to avoid the nonlinear distortion is substantial output backoff (OBO) operating in the linear region of the HPA. However, because of the high OBO, the peak transmit power has to be decreased. For this reason, many linearisation techniques have been proposed to compensate for the nonlinearity without applying high OBO. The predistortion techniques have been known and studied as one of the most promising means to solve the problem. In this thesis, an improved memory mapping predistortion technique devised to reduce the large computational complexity of a fixed point iterative (FPI) predistorter is proposed, suitable especially for multicarrier modulation schemes. The proposed memory mapping predistortion technique is further extended to compensate for nonlinear distortion with memory caused by a shaping linear filter. The case of varying HPA characteristics is also considered by using an adaptive memory mapping predistorter which updates the lookup table (LUT) and counteracts these variations. Finally, an amplitude memory mapping predistorter is presented to reduce the LUT size. Channel coding techniques have been widely used as an effective solution against channel fading in wireless environments. Amongst these, particular attention has been paid to turbo codes due to their performance being close to the Shannon limit. In-depth study and evaluation of turbo coding has been carried out for constant envelope signaling systems such as BPSK, QPSK and M-ary PSK. In this thesis, the performance of TTCM-OFDM systems with high-order modulation schemes, e.g. 16-QAM and 64-QAM, is investigated and compared with conventional channel coding schemes such as Reed-Solomon and convolutional coding. The analysis is performed in terms of spectral efficiency over a multipath fading channel and in presence of an HPA. Maximum a-priori probability (MAP), soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) and pragmatic algorithms are compared for non-binary turbo decoding with these systems. For this setup, iterative multiuser detection in TTCM/MC-CDMA systems with M-QAM is introduced and investigated, adopting a set of random codes to decrease the PAPR. As another application of TTCM, the performance of multicode CDMA systems with TTCM for outer coding over multipath fading channels is investigated.
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