Amphibians and agricultural chemicals: Review of the risks in a complex environment
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environmental Pollution, 2009, 157 (11), pp. 2903 - 2927
- Issue Date:
Agricultural landscapes, although often highly altered in nature, provide habitat for many species of amphibian. However, the persistence and health of amphibian populations are likely to be compromised by the escalating use of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. This review examines some of the issues relating to exposure of amphibian populations to these chemicals and places emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. Several mechanisms are highlighted, including those that may disrupt thyroid activity, retinoid pathways, and sexual differentiation. Special emphasis is also placed on the various interactions that may occur between different agro-chemicals and between chemicals and other environmental factors. We also examine the indirect effects on amphibian populations that occur when their surrounding pond communities are altered by chemicals. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
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