A Study of 28 GHz, Planar, Multi-Layered, Electrically Small, Broadside Radiating, Huygens Source Antennas

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2017, (99), pp. 1 - 1
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Two 28 GHz, planar, electrically small Huygens source antennas are presented that are broadside radiating and are based on multi-layer PCB technology. The designs seamlessly integrate electric Egyptian axe dipole (EAD) and magnetic capacitively loaded loop (CLL) near-field resonant parasitic (NFRP) elements with a coax-fed dipole radiator. Both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) systems are demonstrated. The simulations of the LP system indicate that it is electrically small: ka = 0.961; has peak realized gains and front-to-back ratios (FTBRs) in the range from, respectively, 3.77 to 4.54 dBi and 7.16 to 33.92 dB; and radiation efficiencies higher than 81.14% over its entire 2.14%, -10-dB fractional impedance bandwidth (FBW-10dB). A prototype was fabricated and tested; the measured and simulated results are in good agreement. The CP system exhibits similar properties: ka = 0.942; 1.41% FBW-10dB with a 0.47% 3-dB axial ratio (AR) fractional bandwidth; and peak realized gain, FTBR, and radiation efficiency values equal to 2.03 dBi, 26.72 dB, and 73.4%, respectively. To confirm their efficacy for on-body applications, the specific absorption rate (SAR) values of both the LP and CP Huygens source antennas were evaluated and found to be very low.
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