Learning Multi-level Deep Representations for Image Emotion Classification

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In this paper, we propose a new deep network that learns multi-level deep representations for image emotion classification (MldrNet). Image emotion can be recognized through image semantics, image aesthetics and low-level visual features from both global and local views. Existing image emotion classification works using hand-crafted features or deep features mainly focus on either low-level visual features or semantic-level image representations without taking all factors into consideration. Our proposed MldrNet unifies deep representations of three levels, i.e. image semantics, image aesthetics and low-level visual features through multiple instance learning (MIL) in order to effectively cope with noisy labeled data, such as images collected from the Internet. Extensive experiments on both Internet images and abstract paintings demonstrate the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods using deep features or hand-crafted features. The proposed approach also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with at least 6% performance improvement in terms of overall classification accuracy.
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