Position accuracy of time-of-arrival based ranging using visible light with application in indoor localization systems

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Journal Article
Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2013, 31 (20), pp. 3302 - 3308
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This paper analyzes an indoor positioning system that uses white lighting LEDs. Modulated signals transmitted by the LEDs are used as the basis of time-of-arrival-based distance estimation. The theoretical limits on the accuracy of estimation are calculated by deriving the Cramer-Rao bound for intensity modulated windowed sinusoidal signals. Calculations for a typical indoor scenario, assuming perfect synchronization between transmitter and receiver, but using realistic values for other parameters show that very accurate distance estimates are achievable, with typical errors being in the order of centimeters depending on the frequency and power of the sinusoidal signals, the distance from the LED and the properties of the LED and the photoreceiver. © 2012 IEEE.
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