Water reclamation by heterogeneous photocatalysis over titanium dioxide

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Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, 2016, pp. 679 - 704
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© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. This chapter presents the fundamentals and basic principles of water reclamation by heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP). The effects of important operational parameters on the overall treatment efficiency of photocatalytic system are addressed in the chapter in terms of photocatalyst loading, pollutant concentration, pH and temperature of water, dissolved oxygen, and light intensity. The most popular semiconductor used in HP is Titanium dioxide (TiO2) for being relatively inexpensive, chemically stable, and nontoxic. Most water remediation technologies generate a significant amount of wastewater that requires costly retreatment or discharge to evaporation ponds, rivers, and oceans. HP processes that decompose aqueous contaminants are highly dependent on the reaction conditions and the setup of photocatalytic reactors. Visible-light responsive photocatalysts promise a more effective utilization of solar energy. Doping and co-doping of titania is a practical approach toward obtaining improved visible-light active photocatalysts.
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