Performance and gaseous and particle emissions from a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fumigated compression ignition engine

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Journal Article
Fuel, 2014, 133 pp. 17 - 25
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In this study, an LPG fumigation system was fitted to a Euro III compression ignition (CI) engine to explore its impact on performance, and gaseous and particulate emissions. LPG was introduced to the intake air stream (as a secondary fuel) by using a low pressure fuel injector situated upstream of the turbocharger. LPG substitutions were test mode dependent, but varied in the range of 14-29% by energy. The engine was tested over a 5 point test cycle using ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD), and a low and high LPG substitution at each test mode. The results show that LPG fumigation coerces the combustion into pre-mixed mode, as increases in the peak combustion pressure (and the rate of pressure rise) were observed in most tests. The emissions results show decreases in nitric oxide (NO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions; however, very significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. A more detailed investigation of the particulate emissions showed that the number of particles emitted was reduced with LPG fumigation at all test settings - apart from mode 6 of the ECE R49 test cycle. Furthermore, the particles emitted generally had a slightly larger median diameter with LPG fumigation, and had a smaller semi-volatile fraction relative to ULSD. Overall, the results show that with some modifications, LPG fumigation systems could be used to extend ULSD supplies without adversely impacting on engine performance and emissions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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