Formulation and development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of pioglitazone hydrochloride

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Journal Article
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2014, 8 (1), pp. 27 - 34
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Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a promising system for the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs. The current research aimed to improve the dissolution of poorly water-soluble antidiabetic drug pioglitazone HCl by formulating it in SMEDDS. Liquid SMEDDS of pioglitazone HCl were formulated with Capmul MCM C8 and oleic acid as oil phase, Cremophor RH 40 and Tween 80 as surfactant phase, and Transcutol P as cosurfactant phase after screening various vehicles. The prepared formulations were evaluated for self-emulsifying ability and phase diagram was constructed to optimize the system. These systems were further characterized for globule size, effect of pH and robustness, zeta potential, drug content, viscosity, self-emulsification time, polydispersity index, % transmittance, thermodynamic stability, surface morphology, and drug release. The system was robust to different pH media and dilution volumes. The optimized system possessed a mean globule size of 122.2 nm, zeta potential around -22.9 mV, drug content 99.66 ± 0.47%, viscosity 0.8874 ± 0.026 cP, emulsification time 38 s, polydispersity index value of 0.5, and transmittance value of 99.3 ± 0.6%. Drug release in hydrochloric acid buffer pH 2 was found to be 99.35 ± 0.38%. More than three-fold increase in dissolution characteristics of pioglitazone HCl in SMEDDS was observed as compared to pure and marketed formulation. Liquid SMEDDS filled in hard gelatin capsule (HGC) shell was found to be compatible. Stability studies show there was no sign of phase separation or precipitation and no change in drug content was observed.
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