Sample-Optimal Tomography of Quantum States

Publication Type:
Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2017, 63 (9), pp. 5628 - 5641
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© 1963-2012 IEEE. It is a fundamental problem to decide how many copies of an unknown mixed quantum state are necessary and sufficient to determine the state. Previously, it was known only that estimating states to error \epsilon in trace distance required O(dr^{2}/\epsilon ^{2}) copies for a d -dimensional density matrix of rank r. Here, we give a theoretical measurement scheme (POVM) that requires O (dr/ \delta) \ln ~(d/\delta) copies to estimate \rho to error \delta in infidelity, and a matching lower bound up to logarithmic factors. This implies O((dr / \epsilon ^{2}) \ln ~(d/\epsilon)) copies suffice to achieve error \epsilon in trace distance. We also prove that for independent (product) measurements, \Omega (dr^{2}/\delta ^{2}) / \ln (1/\delta) copies are necessary in order to achieve error \delta in infidelity. For fixed d , our measurement can be implemented on a quantum computer in time polynomial in n.
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