Polarization reconfigurable wheel-shaped antenna with conical-beam radiation pattern

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2015, 63 (2), pp. 491 - 499
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© 2015 IEEE. This paper introduces a polarization reconfigurable wheel-shaped antenna with wide bandwidth and conical-beam radiation pattern. A wideband circular-monopolar patch surrounded by eight reconfigurable coupling loop stubs can generate conical-beam radiation patterns with different polarizations. This polarization reconfigurable characteristic is realized by controlling PIN diodes on the coupling loop stubs. The center-fed circular patch operates with the vertically-polarized conical-beam radiation and the coupling loop stubs radiate the horizontally-polarized wave propagation. With choosing proper magnitudes and phase differences between the two orthogonal radiations from the monopolar patch and the loop stubs, a circularly-polarized conical-beam radiation can be obtained. In addition, the presence of a back reflector yields a wide axial ratio bandwidth, enhances the front-to-back ratio of the radiation pattern, and avoids EM interferences between DC biasing lines and the antenna. This proposed antenna can generate three types of polarizations with the conical-beam radiation pattern including vertical polarization, left-handed circular polarization, and right-handed circular polarization by controlling the PIN diodes. Measured impedance and axial ratio bandwidths are 28.6% (3.45 to 4.6 GHz) and 15.4% (3.6 to 4.2 GHz), respectively, for the two CP modes. The maximum CP gain is 4.4 dBic. Furthermore, a dual-band operation (3.35 to 3.44 GHz and 4.5 to 4.75 GHz) can be observed for the LP mode. The antenna can operate at the downlink of standard C band (3.625 to 4.2 GHz) for geostationary satellite communication.
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