Agricultural by-products for phosphorous removal and recovery from water and wastewater: A green technology

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Green Technologies for Sustainable Water Management, 2016, pp. 491 - 533
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© 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers. Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient for plant growth. The excessive amount of P in aquatic medium may originate from natural sources and/or artificial sources. This chapter discusses P removal/recovery from wastewater due to surface water quality deterioration and P rock reserves depletion. It focuses on both fundamental and applied aspects of this practice using agricultural waste based biosorbents (AWBs). Understanding the operation principles is expected to enable the application of AWBs in the future. Because of increasing concerns relevant to water quality deterioration and depletion of global P rock reserves, P removal/recovery recently has become a matter of interest. Even though various technologies are presently available, adsorption seems to have advantages when used for P recovery. Although AWBs in both natural and modified forms can be used for P removal, the low P uptake capacity of raw AWBs hinders their widespread application.
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