As the only UN agency with a mandate in culture, UNESCO has developed a comprehensive series of standard-setting instruments in this field, including six main culture conventions, many recommendations and a number of declarations. Significant time and resources are spent on standardsetting activities related to these instruments and even though the visibility of some of this work is high, no comprehensive evaluation has ever been conducted of the standard-setting work of UNESCO. It is in this context that UNESCO decided to conduct this evaluation. Evaluation purpose, scope and methodology The purpose of the overall evaluation is to generate findings and recommendations regarding the relevance and the effectiveness of the standard-setting work of the culture sector with a focus on its impact on ratification; on legislation, policies, and strategies of Parties to UNESCO’s culture conventions; and on the implementation of the conventions at the national level. A separate report by the IOS Audit Section assesses the adequacy and efficiency of the working methods used in the standard-setting work. The evaluation aims to help the UNESCO Culture Sector, Senior Management and the Governing bodies of the conventions to strengthen, refocus and better coordinate the organisation’s standard-setting activities. It also wants to contribute to generating a better understanding about how conventions work in practice, i.e. how they affect legislation and policies of Parties and the behaviour of key institutional actors. It thereby intends to serve as a source of information for Member States, who have the primary responsibility for the implementation of the standard-setting instruments at national level. The overall evaluation examines four of UNESCO’s culture conventions (1970, 1972, 2003 and 2005). The present report constitutes part two of the overall evaluation. It focuses on the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property and looks at the following three levels of standard-setting work and at related activities undertaken both by State Parties and by UNESCO: I. Ratification (or acceptance / succession) of the Convention; II. Integration of the provisions of the Convention into national / regional legislation, policy and strategy; and, III. Implementation of the legislation, policies and strategies at the national level. The evaluation aims to find out about the results achieved at each of these levels, about the effectiveness of the mechanisms used to support the implementation of the Convention, and about the overall relevance of this standard-setting instrument. It also examines the relevance and effectiveness of the support provided by UNESCO to State Parties to the Convention. The foundation of the evaluation methodology is constituted by a Theory of Change. This is a summary overview of the key causal assumptions connecting, through a number of intermediate assumptions, the different types of UNESCO support, as well as the actions of State Parties and other stakeholders within the framework of the 1970 Convention, to the final intended objectives. The Theory of Change was reconstructed on the basis of different inputs, such as documents and interviews, as it had not yet been clearly articulated. It provided the basis for a ‘nested’ methodological design, which included purposive sampling and data collection at the different levels of the causal chain from ratification to implementation as basis for acquiring credible data at all three levels. Data collection methods included a desk study, phone/Skype interviews, a survey, and in person interviews in a few selected countries.