Recycling and Reuse of Rainwater and Stormwater

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Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 2017, pp. 69 - 76
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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Rapid population and urbanization have been considered as the main contributor to water scarcity in most regions in the world. Urban development has led to the conversion of land into built-up areas, and impervious surfaces have been widely used to cover the natural ground. Stormwater on one hand provides a valuable alternate source of water, but on the other hand, if not managed properly, it will cause serious flooding, loss of lives, and damage to properties. Conventional stormwater management diverts runoff quickly either to receiving waterways or to municipal drainage systems, accelerating pollutant contamination and degradation of hydrologic ecosystem and causing flooding. Various sustainable management systems have been developed as holistic systems that integrate control, treatment, and protection in the processes. The Best Management Practices as incorporated into these sustainable management systems are tools/technologies not just aiming at preventing urban flooding but also protecting aquatic and native ecological integrity by removing pollutants and treating runoff before discharging the water back into the environment. Rain and stormwater harvesting if planned, designed, and managed properly will become a valuable alternate source of water to address the intensified water stress around the world.
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