Recognizing an Action Using Its Name: A Knowledge-Based Approach

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Journal Article
International Journal of Computer Vision, 2016, 120 (1), pp. 61 - 77
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© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Existing action recognition algorithms require a set of positive exemplars to train a classifier for each action. However, the amount of action classes is very large and the users’ queries vary dramatically. It is impractical to pre-define all possible action classes beforehand. To address this issue, we propose to perform action recognition with no positive exemplars, which is often known as the zero-shot learning. Current zero-shot learning paradigms usually train a series of attribute classifiers and then recognize the target actions based on the attribute representation. To ensure the maximum coverage of ad-hoc action classes, the attribute-based approaches require large numbers of reliable and accurate attribute classifiers, which are often unavailable in the real world. In this paper, we propose an approach that merely takes an action name as the input to recognize the action of interest without any pre-trained attribute classifiers and positive exemplars. Given an action name, we first build an analogy pool according to an external ontology, and each action in the analogy pool is related to the target action at different levels. The correlation information inferred from the external ontology may be noisy. We then propose an algorithm, namely adaptive multi-model rank-preserving mapping (AMRM), to train a classifier for action recognition, which is able to evaluate the relatedness of each video in the analogy pool adaptively. As multiple mapping models are employed, our algorithm has better capability to bridge the gap between visual features and the semantic information inferred from the ontology. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method achieves the promising performance for action recognition only using action names, while no attributes and positive exemplars are available.
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