M<sup>3</sup> CSR: Multi-view, multi-scale and multi-component cascade shape regression

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Journal Article
Image and Vision Computing, 2015, 47 pp. 19 - 26
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© 2015 Elsevier B.V. Automatic face alignment is a fundamental step in facial image analysis. However, this problem continues to be challenging due to the large variability of expression, illumination, occlusion, pose, and detection drift in the real-world face images. In this paper, we present a multi-view, multi-scale and multi-component cascade shape regression (M3CSR) model for robust face alignment. Firstly, face view is estimated according to the deformable facial parts for learning view specified CSR, which can decrease the shape variance, alleviate the drift of face detection and accelerate shape convergence. Secondly, multi-scale HoG features are used as the shape-index features to incorporate local structure information implicitly, and a multi-scale optimization strategy is adopted to avoid trapping in local optimum. Finally, a component-based shape refinement process is developed to further improve the performance of face alignment. Extensive experiments on the IBUG dataset and the 300-W challenge dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.
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