Dechlorination Mechanism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Magnetic MWCNTs Supported Pd/Fe Nanohybrids: Rapid Adsorption, Gradual Dechlorination, and Desorption of Phenol

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Journal Article
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2016, 8 (11), pp. 7333 - 7342
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© 2016 American Chemical Society. 2,4-dichlorophenol was effectively removed from water using magnetic Pd/Fe nanoparticles supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and energy for 2,4-dichlorophenol and its partially (4-chlorophenol, 2-chlorophenol) and completely (phenol) dechlorinated products are presented and discussed. The adsorption capacity was 2,4-dichlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol > 2-chlorophenol > phenol for MWCNTs. MWCNTs-Fe3O4-Pd/Fe nanohybrids provided rapid adsorption, gradual dechlorination, and final desorption of phenol, which is attractive as a remediation technology. Over 82.7% of the phenol was desorbed and released to the aqueous phase after 72 h due to its low adsorption capacity, leaving the majority of active sites available on the surface of MWCNTs-Fe3O4-Pd/Fe. The nanohybrids maintained high activity in five consecutive in situ experiments, and they were retrievable using magnetic separation. MWCNTs-Fe3O4-Pd/Fe nanohybrids outperform unsupported Pd/Fe nanoparticles, which were difficult to retrieve, and were easily passivated and aggregated.
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