A Tone-based AoA Estimation and Multiuser Precoding for Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2017
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IEEE In this paper, we investigate channel estimation and multiuser (MU) downlink transmission of a time division duplex (TDD) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in millimeter wave (mmWave) channels. We propose a tone-based linear search algorithm to facilitate the estimation of angle-ofarrivals (AoAs) of the strongest line-of-sight (SLOS) channel component as well as scattering components of the users at the base station (BS). Based on the estimated AoAs, we reconstruct the SLOS component and scattering components of the users for downlink transmission. We then derive the achievable rates of maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) and zero-forcing (ZF) precoding based on the SLOS component and the SLOS-plusscattering components (SLPS), respectively. Taking into account the impact of pilot contamination, our analysis and simulation results show that the SLOS-based MRT can achieve higher data rate than that of the traditional pilot-aided-CSI-based (PACbased) MRT, under the same mean square errors (MSE) of channel estimation. As for ZF precoding, the achievable rates of the SLPS-based and the PAC-based are identical. Furthermore, we quantify the achievable rate degradation of the SLOS-based MRT precoding caused by phase quantization errors in the large number of antennas regime. We show that the impact of phase quantization errors on the considered systems cannot be mitigated by increasing the number of antennas and therefore the resolutions of radio frequency phase shifters is critical for the design of efficient mmWave massive MIMO systems.
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