Secondary effluent purification by a large-scale multi-stage surface-flow constructed wetland: A case study in northern China
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Bioresource Technology, 2018, 249 pp. 1092 - 1096
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Assessment of treatment performance in the large-scale constructed wetland (CW) for secondary effluent purification remains limited. The aim of this case study was to therefore to investigate the long-term treatment capacity of organics and ammonium pollutants in a large-scale multi-stage surface-flow (SF) CW fed with secondary effluents from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. The results for two-and-half-year study period indicated that the water quality parameters including chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium (NH4+-N) met the Chinese Grade III of Environmental Quality Standards. The mass reductions of COD and NH4+-N were 53% (4032 kg ha−1 y−1) and 72% (511 kg ha−1 y−1), respectively. However, there was a significant positive correlation between influent loads and treatment performance. The optimal loading of 2.5 g m−2 d−1 for COD and 0.3 g m−2 d−1 for NH4+-N could be recommended for designing the sustainable large-scale multi-stage SF CW wastewater treatments.
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