Impact of membrane orientation on the energy efficiency of dual stage pressure retarded osmosis
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Water Process Engineering, 2019, 30
- Issue Date:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The performance of Dual Stage Pressure Retarded Osmosis (DSPRO) was analyzed using a developed computer model. DSPRO process was evaluated on Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) and Forward Osmosis (FO) operating modes for different sodium chloride (NaCl) draw and feed concentrations. Simulation results revealed that the total power generation in the DSPRO process operating on the PRO mode was 2.5–5 times more than that operating on the FO mode. For DSPRO operating on the PRO mode, the higher power generation was in the case of 2 M NaCl-fresh and 32% the contribution of the second stage to the total power generation in the DSPRO. To the contrast, he total power generated in the DSPRO operating on the FO mode was in the following order 5M-0.6M > 5M-0.7M > 2M-0.01 > 2M-0.6 M. Interestingly, single stage process operating on the FO mode performed better than DSPRO process due to the severe concentration polarization effects. The results also showed that power density of the DSPRO reached a maximum amount at a hydraulic pressure less than the average osmotic pressure gradient, Δπ/2, due to the variation of optimum operating pressure of each stage. Moreover, results showed that the effective specific energy in the PRO process was lower than the maximum specific energy. However, the effective specific energy of the DSPRO was larger than that of the single stage PRO due to the rejuvenation of the salinity gradient, emphasizing the high potential of the DSPRO process for power generation.
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