De-Embedding Based on EM simulation and measurement: A hybrid method

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2017, 65 (12), pp. 5019 - 5034
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© 1963-2012 IEEE. We describe a hybrid de-embedding method that can achieve a good balance between accuracy and the number of standards required. In this new approach, the characterization of a fixture is based on a combination of electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement. The S-parameters of the fixture are initially obtained from EM simulations, and then modified according to the measured results of one or more arbitrary standards using a least-norm correction algorithm. Compared with conventional techniques in which the fixture is fully characterized based on measurement, the hybrid approach can provide similar de-embedding accuracy with fewer standards, or better accuracy with the same standards. Compared with full-wave de-embedding in which the characterization is fully based on EM simulation, systematic errors are reduced due to the use of standards, and thus the de-embedding performance can be improved. The above advantages are experimentally demonstrated through the de-embedding of a dummy two-port coaxial device and a packaged field-effect transistor. The hybrid method is also applicable to devices with an arbitrary number of ports, which can be very attractive in many applications.
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