Stakeholder analysis for the development of a community pharmacy service aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 2017, 13 (3), pp. 539 - 552
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© 2016 Elsevier Inc. Background Participatory approaches involving stakeholders across the health care system can help enhance the development, implementation and evaluation of health services. These approaches may be particularly useful in planning community pharmacy services and so overcome challenges in their implementation into practice. Conducting a stakeholder analysis is a key first step since it allows relevant stakeholders to be identified, as well as providing planners a better understanding of the complexity of the health care system. Objectives The main aim of this study was to conduct a stakeholder analysis to identify those individuals and organizations that could be part of a leading planning group for the development of a community pharmacy service (CPS) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Methods An experienced facilitator conducted a workshop with 8 key informants of the Australian health care system. Two structured activities were undertaken. The first explored current needs and gaps in cardiovascular care and the role of community pharmacists. The second was a stakeholder analysis, using both ex-ante and ad-hoc approaches. Identified stakeholders were then classified into three groups according to their relative influence on the development of the pharmacy service. The information gathered was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The key informants identified 46 stakeholders, including (1) patient/consumers and their representative organizations, (2) health care providers and their professional organizations and (3) institutions and organizations that do not directly interact with patients but organize and manage the health care system, develop and implement health policies, pay for health care, influence funding for health service research or promote new health initiatives. From the 46 stakeholders, a core group of 12 stakeholders was defined. These were considered crucial to the service's development because they held positions that could drive or inhibit progress. Secondary results of the workshop included: a list of needs and gaps in cardiovascular care (n = 6), a list of roles for community pharmacists in cardiovascular prevention (n = 12) and a list of potential factors (n = 7) that can hinder the integration of community pharmacy services into practice. Conclusions This stakeholder analysis provided a detailed picture of the wide range of stakeholders across the entire health care system that have a stake in the development of a community pharmacy service aimed at preventing CVD. Of these, a core group of key stakeholders, with complementary roles, can then be approached for further planning of the service. The results of this analysis highlight the relevance of establishing multilevel stakeholder groups for CPS planning.
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