Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

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Journal Article
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2017, 50 (49)
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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz–Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core–shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal–dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.
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