Detection of unstable periodic orbits in mineralising geological systems
© 2018 Author(s). Worldwide, mineral exploration is suffering from rising capital costs, due to the depletion of readily recoverable reserves and the need to discover and assess more inaccessible or geologically complex deposits. For gold exploration, this problem is particularly acute. We propose an innovative approach to mineral exploration and orebody characterisation, based on the analysis of geological core data as a spatial dynamical system, using the mathematical tools of dynamical system analysis. This approach is highly relevant for orogenic gold deposits, which - in contrast to systems formed at chemical equilibrium - exhibit many features of nonlinear dynamical systems, including episodic fluctuations on various length and time scales. Feedback relationships between thermo-chemical and deformation processes produce recurrent fluid temperatures and pressures and the deposition of vein-filling minerals such as pyrite and gold. We therefore relax the typical assumption of chemical equilibrium and analyse the underlying processes as aseismic, non-adiabatic, and inherent to a hydrothermal, nonlinear dynamical open-flow chemical reactor. These processes are approximated using the Gray-Scott model of reaction-diffusion as a complex toy system, which captures some of the features of the underlying mineralisation processes, including the spatiotemporal Turing patterns of unsteady chemical reactions. By use of this analysis, we demonstrate the capability of recurrence plots, recurrence power spectra, and recurrence time probabilities to detect underlying unstable periodic orbits as one sign of deterministic dynamics and their robustness for the analysis of data contaminated by noise. Recurrence plot based quantification is then applied to three mineral concentrations in the core data from the Sunrise Dam gold deposit in the Yilgarn region of Western Australia. Using a moving window, we reveal the episodic recurring low-dimensional dynamic structures and the period doubling route to instability with depth, embedded in and originating from higher-dimensional processes of the complex mineralisation system.
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