Physical origins of ruled surfaces on the reduced density matrices geometry

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Science China: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy, 2017, 60 (2)
Issue Date:
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© 2016, Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. The reduced density matrices (RDMs) of many-body quantum states form a convex set. The boundary of low dimensional projections of this convex set may exhibit nontrivial geometry such as ruled surfaces. In this paper, we study the physical origins of these ruled surfaces for bosonic systems. The emergence of ruled surfaces was recently proposed as signatures of symmetry-breaking phase. We show that, apart from being signatures of symmetry-breaking, ruled surfaces can also be the consequence of gapless quantum systems by demonstrating an explicit example in terms of a two-mode Ising model. Our analysis was largely simplified by the quantum de Finetti’s theorem—in the limit of large system size, these RDMs are the convex set of all the symmetric separable states. To distinguish ruled surfaces originated from gapless systems from those caused by symmetry-breaking, we propose to use the finite size scaling method for the corresponding geometry. This method is then applied to the two-mode XY model, successfully identifying a ruled surface as the consequence of gapless systems.
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