Sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on functionalized biochar: Protagonist role of Π-Π electron-donor-acceptor interactions and hydrogen bonds

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Journal Article
Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2018, 360 pp. 270 - 278
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The sorption of five potent endocrine disruptors as representative hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) namely estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on functionalized biochar (fBC) was systematically examined, with a particular focus on the importance of π-electron-donor (phenanthrene: PHEN) and π-electron-acceptors (1,3-dinitrobenzene: DNB, p-amino benzoic acid: PABA) on sorption. Experimental results suggested that hydrogen-bond formation and π-π-electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions were the dominant sorption mechanisms. The sorption of HOCs decreased as E1 > E2 > EE2 > E3 > BPA based on the Freundlich and Polanyi-Mane-models. The comparison of adsorption coefficient (K d ) normalized against hexadecane-water partition coefficient (K HW ) between HOCs and PHEN indicated strong π-π-EDA interactions. π-π interactions among DNB, PHEN and HOCs were verified by the observed upfield frequency (Hz) shifts using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) which identified the specific direction of π-π interactions. UV–vis spectra showed charge-transfer bands for π-donors (PHEN and HOCs) with the model π-acceptor (DNB) also demonstrating the role of π-π EDA interactions. The role of π-electron-donor and π-electron-acceptor domains in fBC was identified at different solution pH.
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