Graph-based clustering and ranking for diversified image search

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Journal Article
Multimedia Systems, 2017, 23 (1), pp. 41 - 52
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© 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In this paper, we consider the problem of clustering and re-ranking web image search results so as to improve diversity at high ranks. We propose a novel ranking framework, namely cluster-constrained conditional Markov random walk (CCCMRW), which has two key steps: first, cluster images into topics, and then perform Markov random walk in an image graph conditioned on constraints of image cluster information. In order to cluster the retrieval results of web images, a novel graph clustering model is proposed in this paper. We explore the surrounding text to mine the correlations between words and images and therefore the correlations are used to improve clustering results. Two kinds of correlations, namely word to image and word to word correlations, are mainly considered. As a standard text process technique, tf-idf method cannot measure the correlation of word to image directly. Therefore, we propose to combine tf-idf method with a novel feature of word, namely visibility, to infer the word-to-image correlation. By latent Dirichlet allocation model, we define a topic relevance function to compute the weights of word-to-word correlations. Taking word to image correlations as heterogeneous links and word-to-word correlations as homogeneous links, graph clustering algorithms, such as complex graph clustering and spectral co-clustering, are respectively used to cluster images into topics in this paper. In order to perform CCCMRW, a two-layer image graph is constructed with image cluster nodes as upper layer added to a base image graph. Conditioned on the image cluster information from upper layer, Markov random walk is constrained to incline to walk across different image clusters, so as to give high rank scores to images of different topics and therefore gain the diversity. Encouraging clustering and re-ranking outputs on Google image search results are reported in this paper.
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