Demand Response Modeling in Microgrid Operation: a Review and Application for Incentive-Based and Time-Based Programs

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018, 94 pp. 486 - 499
Issue Date:
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd During recent years, with the advent of restructuring in power systems as well as the increase of electricity demand and global fuel energy prices, challenges related to implementing demand response programs (DRPs) have gained remarkable attention of independent system operators (ISOs) and customers, aiming at the improvement of attributes of the load curve and reduction of energy consumption as well as benefiting customers. In this paper, different types of DRPs are modeled based on price elasticity of the demand and the concept of customer benefit. Besides, the impact of implementing DRPs on the operation of grid-connected microgrid (MG) is analyzed. Moreover, several scenarios are presented in order to model uncertainties interfering MG operations including failure of generation units and random outages of transmission lines and upstream line, error in load demand forecasting, uncertainty in production of renewable energies (wind and solar) based distributed generation units, and the possibility that customers do not respond to scheduled interruptions. Simulations are conducted for two principal categories of DRP including incentive-based programs and time-based programs on an 11-bus MG over a 24-h period and also a 14-bus MG over a period of 336 h (two weeks). Simulation results indicate the effects of DRPs on total operation costs, customer's benefit, and load curve as well as determining optimal use of energy resources in the MG operation. In this regard, prioritizing of DRPs on the MG operation is required.
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