Energy-Efficient Transmission of Hybrid Array with Non-Ideal Power Amplifiers and Circuitry

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2018, 17 (6), pp. 3945 - 3958
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© 2002-2012 IEEE. This paper presents a new approach to efficiently maximizing the energy efficiency (EE) of hybrid arrays under a practical setting of non-ideal power amplifiers (PAs) and non-negligible circuit power, where coherent and non-coherent beamforming are considered. As a key contribution, we reveal that a bursty transmission mode can be energy-efficient to achieve steady transmissions of a data stream under the practical setting. This is distinctively different from existing studies under ideal circuits and PAs, where continuous transmissions are the most energy-efficient. Another important contribution is that the optimal transmit duration and powers are identified to balance energy consumptions in the non-ideal circuits and PAs, and maximize the EE. This is achieved by establishing the most energy-efficient structure of transmit powers, given a transmit duration, and correspondingly partitioning the non-convex feasible region of the transmit duration into segments with self-contained convexity or concavity. Evident from simulations, significant EE gains of the proposed approach are demonstrated through comparisons with the state of the art, and the superiority of the bursty transmission mode is confirmed especially under low data rate demands.
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