Mechanisms of Persistence of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria Nitrosomonas to the Biocide Free Nitrous Acid
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environmental Science and Technology, 2018, 52 (9), pp. 5386 - 5397
- Issue Date:
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© 2018 American Chemical Society. Free nitrous acid (FNA) exerts a broad range of antimicrobial effects on bacteria, although susceptibility varies considerably among microorganisms. Among nitrifiers found in activated sludge of wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are more susceptible to FNA compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). This selective inhibition of NOB over AOB in WWTPs bypasses nitrate production and improves the efficiency and costs of the nitrogen removal process in both the activated sludge and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) system. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this atypical tolerance of AOB to FNA have yet to be understood. Herein we investigate the varying effects of the antimicrobial FNA on activated sludge containing AOB and NOB using an integrated metagenomics and label-free quantitative sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS) metaproteomic approach. The Nitrosomonas genus of AOB, on exposure to FNA, maintains internal homeostasis by upregulating a number of known oxidative stress enzymes, such as pteridine reductase and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. Denitrifying enzymes were upregulated on exposure to FNA, suggesting the detoxification of nitrite to nitric oxide. Interestingly, proteins involved in stress response mechanisms, such as DNA and protein repair enzymes, phage prevention proteins, and iron transport proteins, were upregulated on exposure to FNA. In addition enzymes involved in energy generation were also upregulated on exposure to FNA. The total proteins specifically derived from the NOB genus Nitrobacter was low and, as such, did not allow for the elucidation of the response mechanism to FNA exposure. These findings give us an understanding of the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance within the AOB Nitrosomonas to the biocidal agent FNA.
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