Performance Analysis of the Idle Mode Capability in a Dense Heterogeneous Cellular Network

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2018, 66 (9), pp. 3959 - 3973
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© 1972-2012 IEEE. In this paper, we study the impact of the base station (BS) idle mode capacity (IMC) on the network performance of multi-tier and dense heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight transmissions. Different from most existing works that investigated network scenarios with an infinite number of user equipments (UEs), we consider a more practical set-up with a finite number of UEs in our analysis. Moreover, in our model, the small BSs (SBSs) apply a positive power bias in the cell association procedure, so that macrocell UEs are actively encouraged to use the more lightly loaded SBSs. In addition, to address the severe interference that these cell range expanded UEs may suffer, the macro BSs (MBSs) apply enhanced inter-cell interference coordination, in the form of almost blank subframe (ABS) mechanism. For this model, we derive the coverage probability and the rate of a typical UE in the whole network or a certain tier. The impact of the IMC on the performance of the network is shown to be significant. In particular, it is important to note that there will be a surplus of BSs when the BS density exceeds the UE density, and thus a large number of BSs switch off. As a result, the overall coverage probability, as well as the area spectral efficiency, will continuously increase with the BS density, addressing the network outage that occurs when all BSs are active and the interference becomes LoS dominated. Finally, the optimal ABS factors are investigated in different BS density regions. One of major findings is that MBSs should give up all resources in favor of the SBSs when the small cell networks go ultra-dense. This reinforces the need for orthogonal deployments, shedding new light on the design and deployment of the future 5G dense HCNs.
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