Effects of direct injection timing associated with spark timing on a small spark ignition engine equipped with ethanol dual-injection
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Fuel, 2019, 239 pp. 852 - 861
- Issue Date:
|Effects of direct injection timing associated with spark timing on a small spark ignition am.pdf||Accepted Manuscript Version||1.3 MB|
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Dual injection of ethanol fuel (DualEI) has been in development. DualEI has the potential in increasing the compression ratio and thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines by taking the advantages of ethanol fuel properties and the direct injection. This paper reports an experimental investigation of the effect of direct injection (DI) timing associated with spark timing on the performance of a small DualEI engine. Experiments were conducted with fixed port injection timing and varied DI timing before (early) and after (late) the intake valve closed at 3500 RPM and two load conditions. Results show that the engine performance is enhanced by early DI timing, although the variation of IMEP and indicated thermal efficiency with DI timing is not significant either with early DI timing or in most of the tested conditions with late DI timing. Only in the medium load condition when the DI timing is retarded from 80 to 60 CAD bTDC, the IMEP and thermal efficiency significantly reduced by about 16% due to the increased initial combustion duration, resulting in reduced flame speed and increased combustion instability. The results also show different effects of early and late DI timing associated with the spark timing on engine emissions. With late DI timing, the engine emissions of CO and NO increase with the advance of late DI timing and spark timing. With early DI timing, the engine emissions increase with the advance of spark timing. However, the variation of engine emissions with early DI timing is more complicated than that late.
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