Combined EEG-gyroscope-TDCS brain machine interface system for early management of driver drowsiness
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 2018, 48 (1), pp. 50 - 62
- Issue Date:
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© 2013 IEEE. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a wireless, wearable brain machine interface (BMI) system dedicated to signal sensing and processing for driver drowsiness detection (DDD). Owing to the importance of driver drowsiness and the possibility for brainwaves-based DDD, many electroencephalogram (EEG)-based approaches have been proposed. However, few studies focus on the early detection of driver drowsiness and on the early management of driver drowsiness using a closed-loop algorithm. The reported wireless and wearable BMI system is used for 1) simultaneous EEG and gyroscope-based head movement measurement for the early detection of driver drowsiness and 2) simultaneous EEG and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the early management of driver drowsiness. To achieve the purposes of easy-To-use and distraction-free driving, a Bluetooth low-energy module is embedded in this BMI system and used to communicate with a fully wearable consumer device, a smartwatch, which coordinates the work of drowsiness monitoring and brain stimulation with its embedded closed-loop algorithm. The proposed system offers a 128 Hz sampling rate per channel, 12-bit and 16-bit resolution for a single-channel EEG and a three-channel gyroscope, and a maximum 2 mA current for the tDCS. The current consumption of the whole headset system is 56 mA. The battery life of the smartwatch is 9 h. The DDD experimental results show that the proposed system obtained a 93.67% five-level overall accuracy, a 96.15% two-level (alert versus slightly drowsy) accuracy, and maximum 16-To 23-min wakefulness maintenance.
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