Robust frequency regulation in mobile microgrids: HIL implementation

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Journal Article
IEEE Systems Journal, 2019, 13 (4), pp. 4281 - 4291
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© 2007-2012 IEEE. It is undeniable that marine vessel systems play an important role to transfer huge loads and weapons with low cost. However, ship power systems produce a lot of greenhouse gases, which in turn lead to serious environmental pollution. Hence, the utilizing of wind turbines (WTs), solar generation, sea wave energy (SWE), and energy storage systems (ESSs) in marine vessel power systems have been attracting a lot of attention in recent years. In this paper, it is assumed that a marine vessel power system with photovoltaic (PV), WT, SWE, and ESS can be regarded as a mobile-islanded MG. Then, a novel topology for hybrid shipboard microgrids (MGs) is presented. Next, in order to make a balance between consumption and power generation in shipboard MGs, an optimal modified model-free nonlinear sliding mode controller is introduced for the secondary load frequency control. Since the quality of the control actions of the proposed model-free approach depends on its parameters, a hybrid version of the sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) and wavelet-mutation (WM), called SCAWM, is employed to find the best value of these coefficients. Comparisons are conducted with other existing methodologies, such as model predictive control, interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller, and conventional PI (PI) to establish the supremacy of the newly suggested control strategy. Finally, a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation based on OPAL-RT is accomplished to affirm the applicability of the suggested controller, from a systemic perspective, for the load frequency control problem in the shipboard MG.
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