A study into the effect of different nozzles shapes and fibre-reinforcement in 3D printed mortar

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Materials, 2019, 12 (10)
Issue Date:
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© 2019 by the authors. Recently, 3D printing has become one of themost popular additivemanufacturing technologies. This technology has been utilised to prototype trial and produced components for various applications, such as fashion, food, automotive, medical, and construction. In recent years, automation also has become increasingly prevalent in the construction field. Extrusion printing is the most successful method to print cementitiousmaterials, but it still faces significant challenges, such as pumpability ofmaterials, buildability, consistency in the materials, flowability, and workability. This paper investigates the properties of 3D printed fibre-reinforced cementitious mortar prisms and members in conjunction with automation to achieve the optimum mechanical strength of printed mortar and to obtain suitable flowability and consistent workability for the mixed cementitious mortar during the printing process. This study also considered the necessary trial tests, which are required to check the mechanical properties and behaviour of the proportions of the cementitious mix. Mechanical strength was measured and shown to increase when the samples were printed using fibre-reinforced mortar by means of a caulking gun, compared with the samples that were printed using the same mix delivered by a progressive cavity pump to a 6 degree-of-freedom robot. The flexural strength of the four-printed layer fibre-reinforced mortar was found to be 3.44 ± 0.11MPa and 5.78 ± 0.02MPa for the one-layer. Moreover, the mortar with different types of nozzles by means of caulking is printed and compared. Several experimental tests for the fresh state of the mortar were conducted and are discussed.
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