‘Professional’ field: Skills, income, status and foreign-owned firms

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Education in the Asia-Pacific Region, 2019, 48 pp. 131 - 158
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© 2019, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. This chapter addresses the ‘professional’ field and focuses on the economies. The first section presents a brief overview of Vietnam’s economic sectors, types of business enterprises, law and governance issues and the labour market demand and supply of workers’ skills as background contexts. The next section summarises the economic sectors and enterprises that survey respondents and interviewees worked in. Drawing on the survey and interview data, the following section discusses overseas-acquired skills, knowledge and attributes that were favourable for returnees in terms of employment opportunities. This is followed by accounts of returnees’ experiences in applying these skills, knowledge and attributes and how they mediated and negotiated the culture and social relations in the workplace. The last part of the empirical discussion draws on the survey results to present returnees’ achieved functionings in terms of job roles, income levels and job satisfaction. The concluding section summarises the key findings and explication of the Sen-Bourdieu concepts of normative agency and situated freedom. It identifies some implications for international education practices broadly and for Vietnam’s authorities and employers, particularly foreign-owned firms, in receiving returning graduates or migrants.
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