Techno-economic assessment of fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process for greenwall plants from urban wastewater

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Journal Article
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2019, 127 pp. 180 - 188
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© 2019 Institution of Chemical Engineers Pressure-assisted osmosis (PAO) has been suggested to integrate with fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) to improve the overall efficiency of simultaneous wastewater reuse and fertiliser osmotic dilution. This study aims to demonstrate the techno-economic feasibility of pressure-assisted fertiliser driven forward osmosis (PAFDO) hybrid system compared to the existing ultraviolet and reverse osmosis (UV–RO) process. The results showed that coupling FDFO with PAO (i.e. PAFDO) could help fulfill the water quality required for greenwall fertigation. An economic analysis on capital and operational costs for the PAFDO showed that the PAO mode application at a lower FDFO dilution stage could significantly reduce the costs. However, when considering the different applied pressures in PAO (i.e. 2, 4, and 6 bar), the increase in the total water cost was not significant. This indicates that the dilution stage for applying PAO is more sensitive to the total water cost of the PAFDO than the applied pressure. A coupling of higher average water flux (>10 L/m2h) and lower draw solution (DS) dilution factor (DF < 60) is recommended. Therefore, this could make the PAFDO system economically viable compared to the benchmark for the UV-RO disinfection system.
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