Proteins Regulating Microvesicle Biogenesis and Multidrug Resistance in Cancer

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Journal Article
Proteomics, 2019, 19 (1-2)
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© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Microvesicles (MV) are emerging as important mediators of intercellular communication. While MVs are important signaling vectors for many physiological processes, they are also implicated in cancer pathology and progression. Cellular activation is perhaps the most widely reported initiator of MV biogenesis, however, the precise mechanism remains undefined. Uncovering the proteins involved in regulating MV biogenesis is of interest given their role in the dissemination of deleterious cancer traits. MVs shed from drug-resistant cancer cells transfer multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins to drug-sensitive cells and confer the MDR phenotype in a matter of hours. MDR is attributed to the overexpression of ABC transporters, primarily P-glycoprotein and MRP1. Their expression and functionality is dependent on a number of proteins. In particular, FERM domain proteins have been implicated in supporting the functionality of efflux transporters in drug-resistant cells and in recipient cells during intercellular transfer by vesicles. Herein, the most recent research on the proteins involved in MV biogenesis and in the dissemination of MV-mediated MDR are discussed. Attention is drawn to unanswered questions in the literature that may prove to be of benefit in ongoing efforts to improve clinical response to chemotherapy and circumventing MDR.
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