Chemical and microbiological risk assessment of urban river water quality in Vietnam
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 2019
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© 2019, Springer Nature B.V. Abstract: The contamination and risk by nutrients (NH 4+ , NO 2− , NO 3− and PO 43− ), COD, BOD 5 , coliform and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) of As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were investigated in urban river (Nhue River), Vietnam during 2010–2017. The extensive results demonstrated that concentrations of these contaminants showed significant spatial and temporal variations. The Nhue River was seriously polluted by NH 4+ (0.025–11.28 mg/L), PO 43− (0.17–1.72 mg/L), BOD 5 (5.8–179.6 mg/L), COD (1.4–239.8 mg/L) and coliform (1540–326,470 CFU/100 mL); moderately polluted by As (0.2–131.15 μg/L) and Hg (0.11–4.1 μg/L); and slightly polluted by NO 2− (0.003–0.33 mg/L) and Cd (2.1–18.2 μg/L). The concentrations of NH 4+ , PO 43− , COD, BOD 5 and coliform frequently exceeded both drinking water guidelines and irrigation water standards. Regarding PTEs, As, Cd and Hg concentrations were frequently higher than the regulatory limits. Human health risks of PTEs were evaluated by estimating hazard index (HI) and cancer risk through ingestion and dermal contacts for adults and children. The findings indicated that As was the most important pollutant causing both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns. The non-carcinogenic risks of As were higher than 1.0 at all sites for both adults (HI = 1.83–7.4) and children (HI = 2.6–10.5), while As posed significant carcinogenic risks for adults (1 × 10 −4 −4.96 × 10 −4 ). A management strategy for controlling wastewater discharge and protecting human health is urgently needed. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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