Formulation and solid state characterization of carboxylic acid-based co-crystals of tinidazole: An approach to enhance solubility.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Polim Med, 2018, 48 (2), pp. 99 - 104
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BACKGROUND: Tinidazole (TNZ) is an anti-parasite drug used in the treatment of a variety of amebic and parasitic infections. It has low solubility in aqueous media and is categorized under Class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study the potential for enhancing the solubility of TNZ using carboxylic acid co-crystals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The solubility of TNZ was determined individually using 6 carboxylic acids for forming co-crystals at a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. Three carboxylic acids - namely tartaric acid (TA), oxalic acid (OA) and glutaric acid (GA) - resulted in the formation of co-crystals with enhanced solubility. An equilibrium solubility study of TNZ co-crystals at 1:1.5 and 1:2 stoichiometric ratios was also carried out. The co-crystals which developed were evaluated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the drug-co-crystal former interactions. RESULTS: The solubility of TNZ in distilled water was found to be 0.014 mg/mL. The highest enhancement ratio was obtained with TNZ and TA at a ratio of 1:1. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms suggested that the drug and carboxylic acids had undergone interactions such as hydrogen bonding. The XRD and DSC results confirmed the formation of co-crystals. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the results of enhanced solubility of TNZ using co-crystals is a clear indication of the potential for co-crystals to be used in the future for other poorly water-soluble drugs, considering that co-crystals are a safe and cost-effective approach.
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