Occurrence and risk assessment of multiple classes of antibiotics in urban canals and lakes in Hanoi, Vietnam
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Science of the Total Environment, 2019, 692 pp. 157 - 174
- Issue Date:
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© 2019 Very little information on the occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in the aquatic environment is reported for Vietnam, where antibiotics are assumed to be omnipresent in urban canals and lakes at high concentrations due to the easy accessibility of antibiotics without doctor prescription. This study provides comprehensive analysis of the occurrence of 23 antibiotics in urban canals (To Lich and Kim Nguu) and lakes (West Lake, Hoan Kiem, and Yen So) in Hanoi, Vietnam. Of these 23 antibiotics, 18 were detected in urban canals at above 67.9% detection frequency (DF). The concentrations of detected antibiotics were in the range from below quantification limit (MQL) to almost 50,000 ng/L, depending on the compound and sampling site. In urban canals, median concentration of amoxicillin, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole was >1000 ng/L while other antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, tylosin and vancomycin were detected at median concentrations of <100 ng/L. Similarly, 16 target antibiotics were also detected in urban lakes. Macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin-H2O), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin and ofloxacin), lincosamides (clindamycin and lincomycin), and trimethoprim were ubiquitously detected in urban lakes (DF = 100%). In this study, potential risks of antibiotics in the investigated urban canals and lakes were assessed based on the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) from the existing literature for antibiotic resistance selection (PNECARM) and ecological toxicity to aquatic organisms (PNECEcotox). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim were found in the investigated urban canals at concentrations exceeding their PNECARM and PNECEcotox. Similarly, most of the target antibiotics (i.e. amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, lincomycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim and tylosin) were detected in the investigated urban lakes at concentrations close to or exceeding PNECEcotox for aquatic organisms. Further investigations on the occurrence and fate of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface waters are recommended.
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