Microbial Fingerprinting of Potential Biodegrading Organisms

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Journal Article
Current Pollution Reports, 2019, 5 (4), pp. 181 - 197
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© 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The world is witnessing various pollutants in the environment since the last few decades that threaten human life. The biological responses to various pollutants show variations as the living system behaves differently in their sensitivities to the same types of pollutants. The relative response and activity depend upon the duration of exposure to the specific pollutant. It is impossible to stop various activities leading to environmental pollution; however, pollutants can be eliminated from the environment using the microorganisms. Application of biological processes can be executed in order to get rid of toxic pollutants through their biodegradation. The pollutants like hydrocarbons, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, nitro-aromatic compounds, non-chlorinated herbicides and pesticides, organophosphates, radionuclides can lead to serious health and environmental problems. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of pollutants on the living beings and environment, microbial responses to pollution, and distribution of various biodegrading microorganisms in the environment. Profiling of biodegrading microorganisms, microbial biosensor to detect environmental pollution, and strain improvement through genetic manipulation to enhance the biodegradation process have been discussed in detail.
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