Green Synthesis of Fe<inf>3</inf>O<inf>4</inf>@Carbon Filter Media for Simultaneous Phosphate Recovery and Nitrogen Removal from Domestic Wastewater in Biological Aerated Filters

Publication Type:
Journal Article
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2019, 7 (19), pp. 16698 - 16709
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Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society. Domestic wastewater depth processing and reclamation are essential in the alleviation of global water shortage. In this study, an innovative filter media (i.e., Fe3O4@Carbon filter media [FCM]) was synthesized and subsequently used in a biological aerated filter (BAF) for simultaneous phosphate recovery and nitrogen removal (SPN) from domestic wastewater. The performance of FCM was compared with the commercially available ceramsite (CAC). The results showed that the performance of FCMBAF was better than that of CACBAF; as far as SPN is concerned, the magnetic field of FCMBAF could accelerate the growth rate of biofilm. Moreover, the nitrospira and nirK gene copy numbers of FCMBAF were considerably higher than those of CACBAF. Interestingly, the interconnectivity and uniformity of pores were also suitable for the microdistribution of biofilm, where different aerobic and anaerobic zones of the FCM were formed. This facilitates the microinteraction between the key microorganisms and the filter media that successfully enhanced the nitrogen removal. The phosphate recovery was attained via hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) formation, which resulted from the reaction between phosphate (PO43-) and FCM. The average effluent concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), and PO43- were 8.12, 6.18, 0.997, and 0.073 mg/L of FCMBAF, respectively, which were lower than those from the national standard (CODcr ≤ 50 mg L-1, NH4+-N ≤ 5.0 mg L-1, TN ≤ 15 mg L-1, TP ≤ 0.5 mg L-1, GB 18918-2002, first standard). Thus, FCM demonstrated a promising potential for SPN and wastewater recycling of BAF in domestic wastewater treatment.
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