Voltage Stabilization: A Critical Step Toward High Photovoltaic Penetration

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Journal Article
IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 2019, 13 (2), pp. 17 - 30
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© 2007-2011 IEEE. The increasing photovoltaic (PV) power sources connected to low-voltage (LV) distribution networks generate a new grid environment featuring various types of power generations near consumers and bidirectional active and reactive power flows. However, the large-scale deployment of PVs is hindered by the power quality problems, particularly voltage deviation. To overcome this obstacle, proper mitigation techniques should be developed to eliminate the negative impacts of high-PV penetration in LV networks. This article provides an in-depth review of recently developed technologies that prevent voltage deviation in LV grids with PVs. Following an investigation of the voltage fluctuation phenomena along the distribution feeder due to variable PV output and power demand, the mathematical relationship between power flow and voltage level is revealed. The solutions that mitigate the voltage variation are then investigated and classified. Their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. Finally, the current trend in grid integration of PVs and other distributed generators (DGs) under future grid framework is discussed.
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